What is state-of-the-art diffusion bonding? Advantages & Disadvantages

What is state-of-the-art diffusion bonding? Advantages & Disadvantages

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state-of-the-art diffusion bonding
Among the various methods of joining copper current carriers, state-of-the-art diffusion bonding has proven itself the best. This prevents internal heating, maintains fire safety and the uninterrupted operation of network electrical installations.

 State-of-the-art diffusion bonding (Copper Bonding)

To weld prepared copper cables, you will need

  1. Firstly, an inverter
  2. Subsequently, electrodes

Features of copper bonding:

  1. Fluidity
  2. High thermal conductivity
  3. In addition to this, the ability to absorb gases

Apart from these state-of-the-art diffusion bonding requires an experience and skill from the performer also.

An overview of applicable electrodes for diffusion bonding

For bonding copper wires, two types of electrodes are common which are carbon and graphite with a copper sputtering coating:

  1. Temperature of destruction of the electrode material is more than 3800 ° C
  2. Moreover, rapid heating of the rod material to the copper liquefaction temperature
  3. Similarly, during welding, the carbon rod does not stick to the wires
  4. 5-10 A is a sufficient, albeit small, current for a stable arc discharge.

Features of using carbon electrodes

The electrodes are made of black-colored electro technical carbon pressed in the form of a rod. Its ends are beveled. Even with a very low bonding current, a high temperature occurs at the tip of the electrode.

The carbon electrode in state-of-the-art diffusion bonding is common when the graphite element is not easy to weld. You need to work very carefully to prevent overheating of the insulation. Carbon electrodes are commonly common in low power welders.

Considerations for coal electrodes

When working with coal electrodes, the following features should be considered:

  • The place of bonding is brittle, it can oxidize and have a porous structure
  • Besides, due to the high temperature of the arc, the electrode consumes faster
  • it is difficult to work with carbon rod electrode than a graphite one, it requires practical skills

Diffusion bonding takes place in two stages:

  1. Compression of the surfaces to weld
  2. Here, all points of the materials to be joined approach each other at interatomic interactions
  3. Next; formation of the structure of welded joint under influence of relaxation processes completes

Unlike traditional methods of fusion welding, where additional metal adds to the base metal in the seam, state-of-the-art diffusion bonding allows obtaining a homogeneous seam without serious changes in the physical and mechanical composition of the joint.

Compound’s characteristics of compounds

  1. The presence of a continuous seam without pores and shell formation
  2. Absence of oxide inclusions in the compound
  3. Moreover, this brings Stability of mechanical properties.

Since diffusion is a natural process of penetration of one substance into another, the crystal lattice of the materials are not in the contact zone, and therefore there is no seam brittleness.

Advantages and disadvantages of diffusion bonding technology

Following are the advantages and disadvantages of state-of-the-art diffusion bonding


  1. Diffusion bonding does not require bonding solders, electrodes
  2. Additional machining of the surfaces to be welded is not required
  3. Additionally, high quality welded joint
  4. Furthermore, low consumption of consumed energy
  5. A wide range of thicknesses of parts to be welded - from fractions of a micron to several meters


  1. The need to evacuate the working chamber
  2. Also, thorough preparation and cleaning of the surfaces to be welded

What are diffusion bonding applications? Simple Definition

The advantages of this technology include the possibility of diffusion bonding of dissimilar materials with obtaining an equal-strength weld without significant changes in physical and chemical characteristics, a high level of protection and no need for filler metal.

Such bonding compound’s in state-of-the-art diffusion bonding allows the creation of durable structures both from homogeneous metals with alloys, as well as materials of various kinds, including those sharply differing in their characteristics, for example, porous compositions with layered ones.

These are insoluble in each other, refractory or low-plastic metals and alloys, the connection of which is rather difficult. And the use of the diffusion method makes it possible to obtain welded structures even from such pairs of metals and alloys that are practically impossible to join using other types of welding. An example of this is the diffusion bonding of titanium to steel,

state-of-the-art diffusion bonding 2021
Equipment’s common in diffusion bonding

For state-of-the-art diffusion bonding, equipment is easy to make difference by the degree of vacuuming: with a low vacuum (up to 10-2 mm Hg), with a medium vacuum (10-3 ... 10-5 mm Hg), with a high vacuum (over 10-5 mm Hg), with a protective gas of varying degrees of pressure.

For heating parts, induction heating by high-frequency currents, electric contact heating by current, and radiation heating by an electric heater are common. The units use hydraulic or mechanical pressure systems. Installations are manual, semi-automatic and automatic with program control.

Pros and cons of the method


The advantages of this bonding method

  • Ease of operation and low cost of equipment for the welded process
  • The ability to perform welded work in hard-to-reach places
  • Bonding is appropriate in any spatial positions

The disadvantages of this bonding method

  • First, substances get away that are harmful both to welder himself and to those around him
  • Second, quality of the weld largely depends on the experience and qualifications of the welder
  • More importantly, the speed of work is often lower than with other methods

Manual arc bonding equipment

The equipment required for manual arc bonding consists of:

  1. First, power source, both portable and stationary, depending on the type of work performed by the welder
  2. Second, cable with electric holder, in which an electrode covered with a special coating is easy to fix
  3. Last but not the least, return ground cable to connect the work piece to the power source

Summary state-of-the-art diffusion bonding

Also, do not forget about additional tools, such as: a protective mask, welder's gloves, various devices for removing slag and other things necessary for the convenience of a specialist.

Many state-of-the-art diffusion bonding companies ignore the fact of durable bonding. Only professional companies can ensure long term performance via good devices. You can trust our products.